Debian Jigdo mini-HOWTO

Posted on 7:02 PM by Bharathvn

2. Why jigdo?

2.1. How Does One Get A Debian ISO Image Set?

If you want a set of Debian CDs there are many ways of getting them. One way
is to buy them from [http://www.debian.org/CD/vendors/] vendors who sell
Debian CDs. This definitely has merit since some of the vendors donate money
back to the Debian project. Your donations help make sure that Debian is
around for a long time.

Another way of getting a set of Debian CDs is to burn your own set. This
first entails obtaining an ISO image and then burning that ISO image to a
blank CD. Before jigdo, there were two ways of creating Debian CDs:

1. Downloading the entire ISO

2. Using the pseudo-image kit (PIK)


This document is about the newer and better way of obtaining Debian ISO
images, using a tool called jigdo. In fact, the PIK is now officially dead
and all further references to it have been removed from this document. The
canonical method of getting Debian ISO images is with jigdo.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Why Not Download The Whole ISO Image?

There are mirrors which offer http and ftp downloads of Debian ISOs. The
problem is that there are very few mirror sites, and their bandwidth can't
support everyone who wants Debian ISOs. For example, fsn.hu has reportedly
saturated the connection of its provider. The outgoing traffic reaches a few
terabytes per month!

In addition, Debian testing and unstable get updated often. Your ISOs may
become outdated the same day you download them unless you find some sneaky
way of updating them like mounting the ISO on a loopback device and using
rsync (which is what the PIK did). So if you want up-to-date ISO images, you
must download a new set of ISO images every day. Clearly, this is not the way
you want to obtain Debian ISOs!

Even if you want to download the stable ISO images, they still get updated
every few months. Downloading the ISO images will give you up-to-date images
for a few months, but every time a new revision of Debian stable is released,
you'll need to go through the painful process of downloading the entire ISO
set from scratch. This is not a good use of your time and the mirror's
resources.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3. What Is Jigdo?

Jigdo (which stands for "Jigsaw Download") was written by [mailto:
atterer@debian.org] Richard Atterer and is released under the GNU GPL. It's a
tool that allows efficient downloading and updating of an ISO image. Any ISO
image. Jigdo is not Debian specific, however Debian has chosen it to be the
official method of downloading ISO images.

A common misconception is that jigdo creates ISO images; it doesn't. Let's
discuss the overall process of how jigdo allows you to obtain an ISO image.
Let Adam (a Debian release manager) be the person offering the ISO image. Let
Betty (a Debian user) be the person who wants to download the ISO image.

1. Adam first creates an ISO image suitable for burning a CD. He might use a
utility like mkisofs or debian-cd to create the ISO image. He also
creates two small files associated with his newly created image: a .jigdo
file and a .template file. He makes these two files available for
download to anyone who wants to obtain his ISO image.

2. Betty then downloads the .jigdo and .template files. She uses jigdo-lite
along with these two files to download Adam's ISO image.

3. When Debian gets updated, Adam creates a new version of the ISO and
generates new .jigdo and .template files.

4. When Betty wants to update her CDs, she downloads the new .jigdo and
.template files and uses them with jigdo-light to update her copy of the
ISO images. The important thing here is that she only downloads the
differences between her old ISO and Adam's new ISO. She does not have to
re-download the parts that are unchanged.


Jigdo comes with two utilities: jigdo-file (used by Adam) which creates the
.jigdo and .template files, and jigdo-lite (used by Betty) which uses these
two files to download or update the ISO. If all you want to do is obtain/
update Debian ISOs, you'll only use jigdo-lite. You can forget that
jigdo-file even exists. :-)

Jigdo addresses all the problems with the other methods of obtaining Debian
ISO images:

* It's much faster than downloading the entire ISO image.

* Unlike downloading the entire ISO image, it can take an outdated CD (or a
loop mounted outdated ISO image), download only the files that have
changed since the CD (or ISO image) was created and create a new updated
ISO. Very similar to how you use cvs to update source code.

* jigdo-lite uses wget which, by default, uses http to transfer files.
Unlike rsync, http is never blocked by firewalls (except the ones behind
which you shouldn't be using jigdo to begin with).

* Jigdo is very kind to the bandwidth of the servers offering the Debian
images. The Debian mirrors can handle a bigger load of people using jigdo
to download Debian images than with other methods of getting them.


Clearly, jigdo is the best method of obtaining Debian ISO images.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. How Jigdo Works (optional)

You don't need to know this material to download Debian ISOs, but it may help
demystify how jigdo works. If you're not interested in the details, simply
fast forward to Section 4, "How Do I Use Jigdo".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1. Preparing The ISO For Download

A CD image is a filesystem called iso9660, but for this discussion, we can
safely talk about a CD image as being a big file called an "ISO image" (about
650MB) that contains files at various offsets. For instance, if a CD contains
a 567 byte file named README, the ISO image might contain the README file's
contents between offsets 20480000 and 20480567. You can visualize a CD image
as:
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| -------------------------------------------------------- |
| ISO Image: |xxxx| file-0 |xx| file-1 |xxx| file-2 |x| file-3 |xxxx| |
| -------------------------------------------------------- |
| |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The "x" areas of the image contain things like directory information, zero
padding, disk name, boot block, etc.

jigdo-file takes two things as input: the complete CD image (so the ISO
already needs to have been made) and a set of files which may or may not be
in the image. Here's a visualization of jigdo-file's input:
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| -------------------------------------------------------- |
| ISO Image: |xxxx| file-0 |xx| file-1 |xxx| file-2 |x| file-3 |xxxx| |
| -------------------------------------------------------- |
| |
| ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- |
| Loose Files: | file-0 | | file-1 | | file-3 | | file-4 | |
| ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- |
| |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Through magic, jigdo-file finds out which of the loose files are contained in
the ISO image and their offsets within the ISO file. It outputs two files: a
".template" file and a ".jigdo" file.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. The .template File

Given an input of an ISO image and a set of files which may or may not be in
the ISO image, jigdo-file outputs a .template file for that ISO image. Here's
what the .template file looks like:
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| -------------------------------------------------------- |
| .template: |xxxx| md5-0 |xx| md5-1 |xxx|cccccccc|x| md5-3 |xxxx| |
| -------------------------------------------------------- |
| |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

jigdo-file found that the files file-0, file-1 and file-3 were contained in
the ISO image. It removed the contents of the these files and replaced them
with each file's md5 checksum (the md5-0, md5-1, etc).

The "x" data (directory information, zero padding, etc) within the ISO image
is compressed and written to the .template file. Finally, any files within
the ISO image that weren't supplied as loose files (like file-2) are also
compressed and written to the .template file. This is shown as "c" data in
the .template file visualization.

Loose files which were supplied to jigdo-file that aren't found in the ISO
image (like file-4) are ignored.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. The .jigdo File

Given an input of an ISO image and a set of loose files which may or may not
be in the ISO image, jigdo-file outputs a .jigdo file for that ISO image. The
Debian .jigdo files are gzipped, so you need to use zcat or zless to view
them. Here's what a .jigdo file looks like when you gunzip it:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| md5-0=http://somemirror.org/file-0 |
| md5-1=http://somemirror.org/file-1 |
| md5-2=http://somemirror.org/file-2 |
| md5-3=http://somemirror.org/file-3 |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The .jigdo file simply provides a mapping between the md5sum of a file within
the ISO image and the download URL of that file. There are some other things
within the .jigdo file, and if you look through it, you'll see the .jigdo
file has the same format as a ".ini" file. It should be self explanatory, but
if you want the nitty-gritty details, see the jigdo documentation.

The format shown above is not quite what you'd see in a typical .jigdo file,
but it's very similar. If you look at the [Servers] section at the bottom of
the .jigdo file, you'll see exactly what the difference is between what I
showed above and an actual .jigdo file.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4. Downloading The Image

Once you use jigdo-file to generate a .jigdo and .template file for an ISO
image, anyone can use jigdo-lite to download that image. jigdo-lite downloads
all the files of a Debian ISO using wget, assembles them and forms a copy of
the original ISO image on the fly.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Downloading Your First Image (In 5 Easy Steps)

We'll assume that you're starting from scratch and don't have any Debian ISOs
on hand. Once you burn your set of ISOs, you can use jigdo-lite later to
update them. We'll cover updating your ISOs in the next section.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1. Install Jigdo

First install the jigdo-file package:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| # apt-get install jigdo-file |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Jigdo is under aggressive development. Bug fixes and enhancements are
constant, so if you're using stable or testing, download jigdo-file from
unstable at [http://packages.debian.org/unstable/utils/jigdo-file.html] http:
//packages.debian.org/unstable/utils/jigdo-file.html. As of 28 Nov 2005 it's
at version 0.7.2-2.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Download The .template And .jigdo Files

For each ISO image you want to download, you'll need both the .jigdo and
.template file for that image. Both files follow the same naming convention:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| distro-arch-n.jigdo |
| distro-arch-n.template |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

where distro is the name of the distro (like "sarge"), arch is the
architecture (like "i386") and n is the disk number (like "1").

For example, sarge has 8 images, so you need to download 8 .jigdo files and 8
.template files. They can be downloaded from [http://www.debian.org/CD/
jigdo-cd/] http://www.debian.org/CD/jigdo-cd/. The first .jigdo and .template
file are named sarge-i386-1.jigdo and sarge-i386-1.template respectively.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.3. Run jigdo-lite

Run jigdo-lite and give it the .jigdo file of the image you want to download.
Using Sarge as an example:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| lucifer$ ls |
| sarge-i386-1.jigdo sarge-i386-1.template |
| lucifer$ jigdo-lite sarge-i386-1.jigdo |
| |
| Jigsaw Download "lite" |
| Copyright 2001-2003 by Richard Atterer |
| Getting mirror information from /etc/apt/sources.list |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| Images offered by `sarge-i386-1.jigdo': |
| 1: 'Debian GNU/Linux testing "Sarge" |
| - Official Snapshot i386 Binary-1 CD' (sarge-i386-1.iso) |
| |
| Further information about `sarge-i386-1.iso': |
| Generated on Fri, 7 Feb 2003 20:31:28 -0700 |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| If you already have a previous version of the CD you are |
| downloading, jigdo can re-use files on the old CD that are also |
| present in the new image, and you do not need to download them |
| again. Mount the old CD ROM and enter the path it is mounted under |
| (e.g. `/mnt/cdrom'). |
| Alternatively, just press enter if you want to start downloading |
| the remaining files. |
| Files to scan: |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you suspended jigdo-lite with control+z (don't do this; I'll tell you what
you'd see) and looked at the output of ls, you'd find a new file in the
directory named sarge-i386-1.jigdo.unpacked. It turns out that .jigdo files
are gzip'ed. This file is simply a gunzip'ed version of the .jigdo file.

Right now, jigdo-lite is telling us that if we have an outdated version of
first CD of sarge, we should give the pathname to the CD. This is how you
update your ISO images (or complete your incomplete downloads). Since we're
assuming that you're starting from scratch and have no Debian ISOs yet, we
have nothing to scan. We'll cover this in Section 5, so just press ENTER.

See also Section 7.2, "More About Scan Sources".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.4. Specify A Mirror

You'll see:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| The jigdo file refers to files stored on Debian mirrors. Please |
| choose a Debian mirror as follows: Either enter a complete URL |
| pointing to a mirror (in the form |
| `ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian/'), or enter any regular expression |
| for searching through the list of mirrors: Try a two-letter |
| country code such as `de', or a country name like `United |
| States', or a server name like `sunsite'. |
| Debian mirror [http://linux.csua.berkeley.edu/debian/]: |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

By default, jigdo-lite pulls the mirror from your /etc/apt/sources.list. If
you want to use a different mirror, you would specify a different mirror
here. If this is the mirror you want to use, press ENTER. Jigdo-lite will
then write a .jigdo-lite file in your home directory.

Next, if the .jigdo file you're using references a package which needs to be
downloaded from a Non-US server, jigdo-lite will prompt you for a Debian
Non-US mirror. The message displayed (and your response) will be very similar
to the mirror dialog in the previous paragraph.
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| The jigdo file also refers to the Non-US section of the Debian |
| archive. Please repeat the mirror selection for Non-US. Do not |
| simply copy the URL you entered above; this does not work because |
| the path on the servers differs! |
| Debian non-US mirror [http://linux.csua.berkeley.edu/debian-non-US//]: |
| |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Jigdo-lite will write your choice to ~/.jigdo-lite. However, if the image
you're about to download doesn't contain Non-US software you won't see this
dialog.

If you want to change the default mirrors you use with jigdo at any time in
the future, you can modify these two lines in ~/.jigdo-lite:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| debianMirror='http://some-mirror-to-use/debian/' |
| nonusMirror='http://some-other-mirror/debian-non-US/' |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5. Downloading Of The ISO

After you specify the mirror(s), jigdo-lite will begin downloading files to
assemble the ISO image:
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Not downloading .template file - `sarge-i386-1.template' already present |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| Merging parts from `file:' URIs, if any... |
| Found 0 of the 826 files required by the template |
| Will not create image or temporary file - try again with different input files |
| --09:35:12-- http://mirror/debian/pool/main/p/pack/pack_3.10-1_i386.deb |
| => `sarge-i386-1.iso.tmpdir/mirror/debian/pool/main/p/pack/pack_3.10-1_i386.deb |
| Resolving linux.csua.berkeley.edu... done. |
| Connecting to linux.csua.berkeley.edu[128.32.112.231]:80... connected. |
| HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK |
| Length: 1,911,624 [application/x-debian-package] |
| |
| 19% [======> ] 378,304 149.87K/s ETA 00:09 |
| |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

There'll be a lot of messages flying across your screen; if this is confusing
to you, see Section 6.13. While jigdo-lite is downloading the packages,
switch to another console (or open another xterm) and do an ls in the
directory you're running jigdo-lite in. Now there should be 6 files in the
directory:

* sarge-i386-1.iso.list

* sarge-i386-1.iso.tmp

* jigdo-file-cache.db

* sarge-i386-1.iso.tmpdir/

* sarge-i386-1.jigdo

* sarge-i386-1.jigdo.unpacked

* sarge-i386-1.template


The sarge-i386-1.iso.tmpdir/ directory contains all the Debian packages that
jigdo-lite downloads. Every so often, the directory gets flushed and the
files get written to sarge-i386-1.iso.tmp, which is an temporarily incomplete
version of the ISO image you want. Note that sarge-i386-1.iso.tmp won't
appear until the first time sarge-i386-1.iso.tmpdir/ gets flushed.

jigdo-file-cache.db is a Berekeley DB file containing md5sums of any files
read in when you specify a directory at the Files to scan: prompt. It's
described in Section 7.3.

At this point, go play some Quake III because this will take some time (you
may want to play on a different machine because jigdo is very disk intensive
when it flushes files to the .iso.tmp file). At some point, the download will
finish and you'll be staring at:
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| FINISHED --13:32:58-- |
| Downloaded: 7,469,872 bytes in 9 files |
| Found 9 of the 9 files required by the template |
| Successfully created `sarge-i386-3.raw' |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| Finished! |
| The fact that you got this far is a strong indication that `sarge-i386-3.raw' |
| was generated correctly. I will perform an additional, final check, |
| which you can interrupt safely with Ctrl-C if you do not want to wait. |
| |
| OK: Checksums match, image is good! |
| |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Updating Your Image

Presumably, you've read the last section, followed the instructions, burned
your newly created ISO files onto CD and are feeling warm and fuzzy. Sooner
or later, some packages will get updated and now you want to donate your old
CDs to some newbie at your local LUG's installfest and burn yourself a set of
updated CDs. Since you're well on the way to becoming a jigdo-guru, we won't
go into as much painful detail as we did in the last section.

The first step is to download the .jigdo and .template files, again, for the
images you want to update. You may wonder why you need to download them a
second time. The reason is because the updated image you want to download has
changed. Files may have been added or deleted, but even if not, any updated
packages or files will have a different checksum from the checksum listed in
the .jigdo and .template files you used when you first downloaded the images.

At this point, you're either holding an outdated Debian CD in your hand or
you have the CD's outdated ISO image on your hard drive. Let's go through the
steps of getting an updated ISO file. If you have a CD, put it in your CD
drive and mount it:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| $ mount /cdrom |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

On the other hand, if you have an ISO file you'd like to update, mount it as
a loop device (you may need to be root to do this). Using Woody as an
example:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| # mount -o loop woody-i386-1.iso /mnt |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Now run jigdo-lite with the .jigdo file as an argument.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| $ jigdo-lite woody-i386-1.jigdo |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| Jigsaw Download "lite" |
| Copyright 2001-2002 by Richard Atterer |
| Loading settings from `/home/p/.jigdo-lite' |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| Images offered by `woody-i386-1.jigdo': |
| 1: Debian GNU/Linux 3.0 r0 Woody |
| - Official i386 Binary-1 CD (debian-30r0-i386-binary-1.iso) |
| |
| Further information about `debian-30r0-i386-binary-1.iso': |
| Generated on Thu, 18 Jul 2002 14:34:12 +0100 |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| If you already have a previous version of the CD you are |
| downloading, jigdo can re-use files on the old CD that are also |
| present on the new image, and you do not need to download them |
| again. You found the secret message; you're a very careful |
| reader. Mount the old CD ROM and enter the path it is mounted |
| under (e.g. `/mnt/cdrom'). Alternatively, just press enter if you |
| want to start the download of any remaining files. |
| |
| You can also enter a single digit from the list below to |
| select the respective entry for scanning: |
| 1: /mnt |
| Files to scan: |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

jigdo-lite is asking us to give it the location of your mounted CD (if you're
updating a CD) or your loop mounted ISO file (if you're using the ISO file).
I'm using an ISO file loop mounted on /mnt, so I'll enter /mnt. If you're
updating a CD, enter the mount directory of your CD, which is most likely /
cdrom. In either case, jigdo-lite will scan the directory of your mounted
media, determine which files need updating and re-use the files which don't
need updating. See also Section 7.2, "More About Scan Sources".

You may see something like:
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Files to scan: /mnt/other |
| |
| Not downloading .template file - `woody-i386-1.template' already present |
| jigdo-file: Output file `debian-30r0-i386-binary-1.iso' already exists - delete |
| it or use --force |
| jigdo-file failed with code 3 - aborting. |
| |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

What happened? Actually, I wanted to show you this because you'll bump into
it sooner or later. I'm updating an ISO file, but the outdated image file is
in the same directory I'm working in. Jigdo-lite wants to generate a file
called woody-i386-1.iso but there's already a file by that name in the
current directory (the outdated image). Jigdo-lite doesn't want to destroy
that file, so it bails and lets me know that I can either delete that file or
use --force to overwrite the file. You could also rename or move the file
too, but I guess jigdo-lite assumes we already know this. :-)

Don't be timid about moving or renaming the image file just because it's loop
mounted. The filesystem uses inodes under the hood, and even if you move or
rename the file, the inode stays the same. You won't hurt the filesystem
mounted under /mnt. As for deleting the ISO file, that won't hurt the mounted
filesystem either. A file's inode gets deallocated only when the inode's
reference count drops to zero. Mounting the ISO image bumps the reference
count up, so the file really gets deleted only after you rm the file and
umount the loop device. All you people who are updating the CD don't have to
worry about any of this. :-)

I'll rename the ISO file to woody-i386-1.iso.old and run jigdo-lite again.
Let's try again:
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| $ jigdo-lite woody-i386-1.jigdo |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| Jigsaw Download "lite" |
| Copyright 2001-2002 by Richard Atterer |
| Loading settings from `/home/p/.jigdo-lite' |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| Images offered by `woody-i386-1.jigdo': |
| 1: Debian GNU/Linux 3.0 r0 Woody - Official i386 Binary-1 CD |
| (debian-30r0-i386-binary-1.iso) |
| |
| Further information about `debian-30r0-i386-binary-1.iso': |
| Generated on Thu, 18 Jul 2002 14:34:12 +0100 |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| If you already have a previous version of the image you are |
| downloading, jigdo can re-use files on the old image that are also |
| present on the new image, and you do not need to download them |
| again. Mount the old CD ROM and enter the path it is mounted under |
| (e.g. `/mnt/cdrom'). Alternatively, just press enter if you want |
| to start the download of any remaining files. |
| You can also enter a single digit from the list below to |
| select the respective entry for scanning: |
| 1: /mnt |
| Files to scan: /mnt |
| Not downloading .template file - `woody-i386-1.template' already present |
| ... |
| Found 1200 of the 1224 files required by the template |
| ... |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

jigdo-lite remembers that I wanted to scan /mnt and tells me I can either
type 1 to scan that directory or type the directory in again. Since I'm a
perverse person, I type the name of the directory again.

The ellipsis represent some text that changes rapidly. The first ellipsis is
a dynamic list of what files jigdo-lite is scanning. The second ellipses
denotes progress in writing woody-i386-1.iso.tmp. Once jigdo-lite finishes
scanning the files and writing the temporary ISO file, it prints:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Copied input files to temporary file `woody-i386-1.iso.tmp' |
| - repeat command and supply more files to continue |
| |
| ----------------------------------------------------------------- |
| If you already have a previous version of the image you are |
| downloading, jigdo can re-use files on the old image that are also |
| present on the new image, and you do not need to download them |
| again. Mount the old CD ROM and enter the path it is mounted under |
| (e.g. `/mnt/cdrom'). Alternatively, just press enter if you want |
| to start the download of any remaining files. |
| You can also enter a single digit from the list below to |
| select the respective entry for scanning: |
| 1: /mnt |
| Files to scan: |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Since you normally don't have another source of files to scan other than your
loop mounted ISO file (or your CD), press ENTER. Jigdo-lite will then ask you
about which mirrors you want to use, just like it did when you downloaded
your ISO for the first time. You've already answered these questions before,
but if you truly don't remember, you might want to re-read Section 4.4.

At this point, you'll see jigdo-lite working its magic. Now wasn't that easy?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Frequently Asked Questions

Questions prepended with a date indicate a time sensitive question (a
question that relates to a temporary situation). If you see one of these
questions and know that the temporary situation has changed, please [mailto:
p@dirac.orgZZZ] contact me and let me know so I can remove the question from
the mini-HOWTO.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1. Why does jidgo ask twice for scanning for existing files? Is it enough
to say yes once ?

It keeps asking this as long as you enter a path to scan. The idea is that
you may want to scan several old CDs, so you can insert one after the other
into the drive and keep supplying the path "D:\" (or whatever). See also
Section 7.2, "More About Scan Sources".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2. Jigdo Has Problems Downloading Certain Filenames.

When downloading Debian images under Windows, jigdo-lite may appear to have
trouble downloading one or more of the following files:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| libbusiness-onlinepayment-bankofamerica-perl_xxx_all.deb |
| libbusiness-onlinepayment-authorizenet-perl_xxx_all.deb |
| libbusiness-onlinepayment-payconnect-perl_xxx_all.deb |
| libmasonx-request-withapachesession-perl_xxx_all.deb |
| libtemplate-plugin-calendar-simple-perl_xxx_all.deb |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Move the jigdo download directory up by as many directories as possible,
closer to the drives's root directory.

The NTFS filesystem has a 255 character limit on a file's pathname. When
jigdo-lite downloads files from the internet, it makes a copy of the server
directory structure in its download directory. With their very long names,
the above Debian packages may exceed the allowed path length, which leads to
error messages like "Cannot write to `[very long pathname]' (No such file or
directory)".

Some people may now wonder: Why does jigdo-lite use wget's
"--force-directories" switch, which creates these problematic directory
hierarchies?

Early versions of jigdo-lite did not use it, but then some folks requested
that jigdo-lite always use the "--continue" switch to avoid half-downloaded
.deb files being ignored and deleted when you interrupt and restart
jigdo-lite.

Unfortunately, it turned out that this led to problems: The Debian servers
contained several identically named files (e.g. "root.bin") in different
directories, and if you interrupted jigdo-lite at roughly the right time
during the download, the chances were high that the resumed download would
append data to the wrong half-downloaded file, corrupting it and making the
entire jigdo download fail.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3. How do I make jigdo use my proxy?

Edit ~/.jigdo-lite (or jigdo-lite-settings.txt for the Microsoft Windows
version) into a text editor and find the line that starts with "wgetOpts".
The following switches can be added to that line:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| -e ftp_proxy=http://LOCAL-PROXY:PORT/ |
| -e http_proxy=http://LOCAL-PROXY:PORT/ |
| --proxy-user=USER |
| --proxy-passwd=PASSWORD |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Of course, substitute the correct values for your proxy server. The last two
options are only necessary if your proxy uses password authentication. The
switches need to be added to the end of the wgetOpts line before the final '
character. All options must be on one line.

Alternatively, under Linux you can also set up the ftp_proxy and http_proxy
environment variables, for example in the file /etc/environment or ~/.bashrc.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.4. Jigdo-lite fails with an error - have I downloaded all those MBs in
vain?

If jigdo-file aborts after downloading a considerable chunk of the ISO
contents, you'll have a large ".iso.tmp" file. There are several things to
try to salvage your download:

* Restart the download by pressing RETURN. Maybe some of the files could
not be downloaded because of timeouts or other transient errors. Try to
download the missing files again.

* Try a different mirror. Some Debian mirrors are slightly out of sync --
maybe a different mirror still holds files that were deleted from the one
you specified, or it has already been updated with files that are not yet
present on your mirror. This has happened quite a few times with me.

* Retrieve the missing parts of the image using [http://rsync.samba.org]
rsync. First, you need to find out the correct rsync URL of the image you
are downloading: Choose a server that offers rsync access to the [http://
www.debian.org/CD/mirroring/rsync-mirrors] stable or [http://
www.debian.org/CD/http-ftp/#testing] testing images, then determine the
correct path and filename. Directory listings can be obtained with
commands like rsync rsync://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/.

Next, remove the ".tmp" extension from jigdo-lite's temporary file by
renaming it, and pass both the remote URL and the local filename to
rsync: rsync rsync://server.org/path/binary-i386-1.iso binary-i386-1.iso
You may want to use rsync's --verbose and --progress switches to get
status messages, and --block-size=8192 to increase its speed.

* Under Linux, you can loop-mount the .tmp file to access the packages that
were already downloaded, and reuse them for generating an image from a
newer .jigdo file. To do this, first issue the following commands as root
in the directory with the broken download: mkdir mnt; mount -t iso9660 -o
loop *.tmp mnt. Next, start a new download in a different directory, and
enter the path of the mnt directory at the "Files to scan" prompt.

Under Microsoft Windows you can do the same thing by loop mounting the
temporary ISO image using "virtual drive" software. [http://
www.daemon-tools.cc] Daemon tools and Nero Image Drive are both very
popular. See also [http://tinyurl.com/c39zr] http://tinyurl.com/c39zr for
more options.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.5. [11 Aug 2002]: Why aren't the translations of this HOWTO on LDP?

I've been having trouble getting the translations of this HOWTO submitted to
the non-English LDP editors.

The German LDP editor, Marco Budde refuses to accept
the German translation because it was written in Docbook and not Linuxdoc,
even though Docbook is the preferred SGML language for the LDP. It's a shame
that we have people within the open source community who would sabotage our
community from the inside.

The Portuguese LDP editor, Alfredo Carvalho , has completely
ignored my submission of the Portuguese translation.

If you care about having LDP documents in these languages, I urge you to
write to these editors and ask them to please be more responsible about
accepting translated documents. For the time being, you can download these
translations from my personal website, [http://www.dirac.org/linux/debian/
jigdo] http://www.dirac.org/linux/debian/jigdo.

Shame on you, Marco Budde .

Shame on you, Alfredo Carvalho .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.6. What do I do if my jigdo download gets interrupted?

If your download gets interrupted, all you need to do is restart jigdo-lite
and hit ENTER at all the question prompts. Jigdo-lite will pick up where it
left off.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.7. My jigdo download won't complete because the .jigdo file is broken. When
I download a new, fixed .jigdo file, do I need to download all the data over
again?

You may find that the .jigdo file you downloaded is broken. It's uncommon,
but it does happen from time to time with moving targets like Debian testing
or unstable.

If you find that .jigdo is broken, you'll need to download a new .jigdo file
(when a fixed one becomes available), but you won't need to download all the
ISO data again.

You can use the same loop mounting trick we use when updating an ISO image.
The difference is that there's no finished .iso file to start with, but the
.iso.tmp file is an ISO image too and can be used to finish the download
without having to re-download all the data that was downloaded before the
broken .jigdo file caused jigdo-lite to halt. Simply loop mount the .iso.tmp
file on /mnt and when you re-run jigdo-lite with the fixed .jigdo file, tell
jigdo-lite to scan /mnt. Don't forget to rename or move the .iso.tmp file so
it doesn't interfere with jigdo-lite which will want to create a new .iso.tmp
file.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.8. Can I use jigdo to download images for DVD?

Absolutely; the process is identical to downloading CD images. The only thing
you need to do differently is to download the .jigdo and .template files for
DVDs instead of CDs. You can find the DVD .jigdo and .template files at
[http://www.debian.org/CD/jigdo-cd/] http://www.debian.org/CD/jigdo-cd/.

On Linux, you need kernel 2.4 or later to create DVD-sized files.

Under MS Windows, you need to use jigdo-win-0.7.1a (released 21 July 2004) or
later to create DVD-sized images. This is because of a bug in the large file
support of Mingw32, the compiler used to create the MS Windows executables.
The bug got fixed on this date, and jigdo-win-0.7.1a was released.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.9. Can I burn the .iso.tmp file to CD?

Thanks to Gordon Huff and David Anselmi, we now know the answer is "yes you
can". But more importantly, Gordon gave a good reason why you'd want to do
this in the first place. Paraphrasing Gordon:


My friend's Win98 has a *nice* cable connection. I arrive in the morning,
start jigdo (more than one, actually) and then we go to the store, tie
back the kiwi plant, put up the Christmas lights and Christmas tree, trim
the tree, order and split a pizza and fire up the satellite dish.

I leave my friends place with several iso.tmp's on CDRWs. When I get
home, I use the iso's that didn't finish to update my jigdo setup at home
which is a dial-up.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.10. Jigdo-lite is broken! It downloads packages and deletes them. I know it
doesn't write them to the iso.tmp file because the file size doesn't change!

Jigdo works just fine -- the .iso.tmp file is created at the beginning with
its final size, but filled with zero bytes. Later, parts of it are
overwritten with the downloaded data.

You can tell that jigdo is making progress by looking at the messages "Found
X of the Y files required by the template" that are printed from time to
time. The first value "X" should increase. When X equals Y, the download is
finished.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.11. I'm having trouble getting jigdo-easy to work.

See Section 7.1.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.12. For image updates, I want jigdo-lite to scan 14 loop-mounted images in
one go. How can I do this?

When updating CD images, it's tiresome to keep loop-mounting and unmounting
images. However, by default the Linux kernel only supports eight loop
devices, and jigdo-lite's menu of previously entered paths only has five
entries.

To scan many loop-mounted images, you must first tell the Linux kernel to
support more than the default eight devices. This is done by giving the
"max_loop" parameter to the module when loading it, e.g. with "modprobe loop
max_loop=16" on the command line or by adding the line "options loop max_loop
=16" to /etc/modules.conf. In Debian, you must put this line into a file
named e.g. /etc/modutils/local-loop and then run update-modules because
direct changes to /etc/modules.conf will be overwritten.

Having mounted the individual images, you can pass the parent directory of
their mount points to jigdo-lite for scanning. For example, if the images are
mounted under /mnt/myloopmounts/image1/ etc., pass "/mnt/myloopmounts" as the
path to scan. If passing the parent directory is inconvenient, you can also
create a directory and fill it with symlinks to the mount points.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.13. Jigdo-lite is too verbose. How can I supress some or all of its
messages?

Jigdo-lite uses wget, and wget's output can be quite verbose. If this is
unsettling, you can make wget more quiet by adding --non-verbose to the
wgetOpts switch in your ~/.jigdo-lite file. If you want wget to print no
messages at all, use --quiet in the wgetOpts switch.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.14. Can I use jigdo on platforms other than Linux?

Certainly. If you're interested in Potato or Woody under Microsoft Windows,
old SunOS, HP-UX and IRIX you can use jigdo-easy. See Section 7.1 and Section
7.4.

If you want to download Potato, Woody, Sarge or Sid under Microsoft Windows,
jigdo-lite has been ported to that platform and can be downloaded from the
main jigdo site (Section 7.4).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.15. On MS Windows, why do I get a "No such file or directory" error
message?

You might find that under MS Windows, jigdo-lite will download some files but
then fail to read their contents, which will produce a "No such file or
directory" error message.

It seems that this occurs if the length of the filenames that jigdo processes
exceeds a certain limit. The solution is to move the half-finished download
up in the directory hierarchy, closer to the top-level directory of the
drive.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.16. On MS Windows, why won't my image grow larger than 2GB?

You're using an old version of jigdo. Please upgrade to jigdo-win-0.7.1a or
newer. See Section 6.8.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.17. On MS Windows, jigdo-lite.bat fails with an error message saying "sh"
was not found.

This means that the PATH command in the .bat file failed. For some reason,
this is the case if you unpacked jigdo on a Windows network share using a
path like "\\SomeServer\Files\jigdo". Solution: Use "Map network drive" (in
the explorer "tools" menu) to assign a drive letter like "Z:", then
double-click on the .bat file inside "Z:\jigdo". Alternatively, a workaround
is to move everything in the jigdo-bin subdirectory up to where the .bat file
is.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.18. Can I run multiple instances of jigdo-lite to download images in
parallel?

Absolutely. However, to avoid filename clashing, you should run each
jigdo-lite instance in its own separate directory. You can start as many
instances as you want, go to bed, and when you wake up, all the ISO images
will be waiting for you on your hard drive. Be aware that jigdo-lite is
bandwidth and CPU intensive, so you won't want to use your computer with
multiple instances running in tandem.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.19. Is there a GUI interface available?

A GTK+ interface to jigdo is being worked on. Both Linux and Microsoft
Windows GUI clients are planned. Unfortunately, it's been 80% done for over
1.5 years, so don't hold your breath for its release.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Errata

7.1. jigdo-easy

Jigdo-easy, by Anne Bezemer, is a fork of jigdo-lite which is portable to a
wider range of systems, including Microsoft Windows, old SunOS, HP-UX and
IRIX). It's also easier to use than jigdo-lite but because of changes made to
Jigdo, will only work with Potato and Woody. Jigdo-easy will not be able to
download Sarge and Sid. See Section 7.4 and Section 6.14.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2. More About Scan Sources

By now you know that when jigdo-lite asks for files to scan, you can use 3
sources:

* A mounted copy of an outdated CD or DVD that you wish to update.

* A loop-mounted copy of an outdated ISO image file on your hard drive.

* A loop-mounted copy of the temporary .iso.tmp file, when a previous
jigdo-lite run aborted.


As Jens Seidel points out, there is another, rather crafty, source you should
use for a scanning source: your apt cache. Apt uses the directory /var/cache/
apt/archives for cache. There will be many Debian packages sitting in this
directory, and they can be used for a scan source for jigdo-lite! So when
you're asked for a directory to scan, by all means, use this directory too.

If you're editing the ~/.jigdo-lite file by hand, be aware that multiple scan
directories are space separated, for example:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| scanMenu='/var/cache/apt/archives/ /cdrom/' |
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3. jigdo-file-cache.db

The cache contains the md5sums of files read when you supply a directory at
the Files to scan: prompt. If you have jigdo-file scan the same directory a
second time, the scan will be very fast.

This could be useful in the following case: rev0 gets updated to rev1. With
the rev1 CD images, some packages may have been pushed from CD n to CD n+1,
or vice versa. If you had a particularly slow link (e.g. modem), you'd try to
avoid downloading these packages again. For this reason, when downloading the
new version of CD n, you'd let jigdo-lite scan the three CDs n-1, n and n+1
(or even all 8 CDs if you want to be 100% sure).

If you have jigdo-lite scan the same CDs over and over again while updating
each of the 8 CD images, the cache will prevent all the data on the CDs from
being read multiple times.

The cache is much more important when generating jigdo files, because you
don't want jigdo-file to read in your whole 50GB Debian mirror for every
generated jigdo file.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------